[:en]Artificial intelligence, in the collective imagination, corresponds to cutting-edge technologies, to robotics capable of replacing human reasoning.In reality, AI has already been present for some time in daily life in a much less invasive way than we think, from the use of smartphones to the use of smart objects, such as energy meters and more.
AI is a branch of computer science that studies the design of hardware and software systems capable of making machines perform actions coordinated with the audio-visual, space-time and decision-making perceptions typical of humans. An intelligent system, therefore, is not only equipped with the ability to perform computational operations or store data, but also possesses varied social or spatial interaction capabilities. Machines can reproduce some of the usual behaviors of human beings; this denotes a particular, innovative form of intelligence endowed to the system.
The birth of this technology is conventionally traced back to 1956, the year of the advent of the computer, because, for the first time, in a conference that brought together experts in the computer field, the term “intelligent system” was used. To date, the use of algorithms, capable of reproducing the complex reasoning of man, has allowed to improve more and more these systems. These realities are characterized by a continuous growth in number and a constant updating and development of the mathematical equations on which they are based. In this way, a variety of possible behaviors is guaranteed, always growing and more and more adaptable to different external stimuli.
Algorithms are able to make decisions and choices related to the contexts in which they are inserted. Think, for example, of cars: a driverless vehicle, equipped with artificial intelligence systems, in case of risk can decide whether to steer or brake according to the circumstance. The possibility of choice on the part of the car denotes an awareness of the consequences of the action on the basis of risk predictions. The predictive ability depends on the recording of data obtained by the sensors, which collect information extrapolated from reality, to communicate them to the system that interprets them according to the decision-making process.
Basic and extended artificial intelligence
Artificial intelligence has two different modes: basic or extended. The term “basic intelligence” refers to all knowledge acquired through the collection and processing of data. With “extended intelligence“, instead, we refer to the possibility of learning from the experiences of the system. In this last case, in the future of informatics it is possible to make the machine able to acquire information, a peculiar characteristic of the human being. Algorithms, so, become more and more precise and allow the interpretation of more and more accurate information, thanks to the already known data, which are part of the system’s background. Artificial intelligence can have two main modes of execution: formal languages and decisions. In the first case, to perform an action or solve a problem, it is chosen to use a predefined approach in the strings: the path to follow is decided according to the result that is intended to be achieved. In the second case, which instead implies the completion of a choice by the machine; a tree model is used: the algorithm is asked to evaluate every possible action or decision considering the consequences. The second approach is based on predictive models developed from initial information and pre-entered data, to make predictions about all possible consequences accurately.
Machine learning allows machines to perform an action even if it has not yet been programmed. The machine’s archive of experience becomes, as with humans, a source of continuous updating from which new algorithms can be learned and developed. It is a learning process aimed at the progressive refinement of the string code. Machines can learn from their mistakes and this is an enormous advantage for technological development.
A.I. in everyday life
In everyday life, artificial intelligence is extremely prevalent. Voice recognition programs, present in smartphones, as well as security systems that exploit facial recognition algorithms, are the result of the achievements of computer science in the field of AI. Interaction with smartphones is now ingrained in consumer habits and is continuously being integrated, through geolocation systems and motion sensors. Interaction between devices is also a product of artificial intelligence.
Vehicles that move without a driver have become a reality, although for the moment they are relegated to a few specific sectors. Other fields where extensive use of AI is being made are the stock market, medicine and robotics. In the medical field, for example, it has become a commonly used tool for certain types of analysis and in certain diagnoses, as well as for the creation of robots used to accompany patients or specific surgical operations.